Thursday, August 13, 2015

Curry Leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii)

 

I have had my Curry Leaf tree for several years now near my kitchen window where it gives light shade to several containers of herbs and vegetable greens.  The tree gets its name because you add the leaves to curry..  The leaves are not usually used to make curry powder which is a combination of several spices.  Some years ago I was introduced to the use of this leaf in cooking by a relative who had lived in Fiji and was now a curry expert.  The leaves have a wonderful citrus smell and are used rather like bay leaves to heighten the flavor of curries, stews and soups.  The leaf, although smallish, is a little too stiff to be eaten.  However, I see on Indian websites that it is highly praised for its medicinal qualities so you could grind it or cut it up tiny if you wanted to eat it to get the extra health benefits.  A good handful of  fresh leaves are sautéed in cooking oil at the beginning or at the end of the cooking process and the flavored oil incorporated into the dish..  I recently had a lovely lentil soup in Nadi, Fiji with several Curry Leaves in it.

As you would expect with anything to do with curry, the Curry Leaf tree is native to India and is mostly used in the cooking of Southern and West India as well as in Sri Lanka.  From my own travels I know that it is also popular amongst the Indian populations of Malaysia and Fiji.


The Curry Leaf tree can grow to 15 feet or so in height.  It has a light canopy and the leaves tend to fall off in the autumn months.  It helps to pinch back the branch growth to get a fuller canopy of leaves plus it makes for easier picking if you keep the leaves reachable.  I saw one tree in Samoa that had been severely cut back to 3 feet high and lots of little trees were growing up from the roots around the main tree but this is the only time I have seen this happen.  It is quite common to find little seedlings growing under the tree from dropped fruit.  These little seedlings can be pulled up and planted or the seed from the fruit can be propagated  in pots.  Either way the seedlings are quite strong but will take their time in growing into a little tree. The tree gets clumps of small white flowers and then purple/black berries in the summer.   The berries are considered poisonous by some but the fruit eating birds love them.




Aloha

Wednesday, June 24, 2015

Green Onions (Allium)


One edible plant that is easy to grow in containers is Green Onions.  Even if you just have a patio garden, this is a plant for you.  For many years I just grew Garlic Chives.  ( See my post about growing them in July 2011.)  One day I was visiting a local gentleman who had a big container of Green Onions in his garden and I asked myself why I was not growing them too.  Duh!  I have no idea why I was so slow to get around to this as they are such useful plants and some foods just seem right with Green Onions rather than using Garlic Chives as a substitute.  I mean, Garlic Chives work well with eggs and salads etc. but a bowl of  Saimin noodle soup really needs that bit of Green Onion on top and stir fried rice only seems right  with Green Onions too.  Usually when I go pick the Green Onions I just use a pair of scissors to cut the plant off about one inch from the soil and leave the roots to grow leaves again.  On a recent trip to New Zealand I noticed Green Onion being added a lot to coleslaw and that added a nice dash of bright green to the slaw.  Being part of the Allium family, the Green Onions also provide  an extra nutritional punch to the meal.



To start off your Green Onions you could buy seeds but the easiest thing is just to buy a fresh bunch of Green Onions at the supermarket produce section.  Use the upper green part, keeping about one inch of the bottom root end.  Place the bottom roots  in water for a day or so to perk them up and then plant them in your garden or a container.   In a container you could use potting mix, but really, you need some real soil in there too for the plants to grow well and also give them the occasional hand full of fertilizer. 

Aloha

Thursday, June 4, 2015

Searching for Bele in Fiji (Abelmoschus manihot)



Edible Hibiscus Leaf was the first of the alternative "spinaches" that I got interested in.  This was over forty years ago when I was living in Samoa.  There they call it Lau Pele.  It is the lazy gardeners dream plant.  Big and very nutritional leaves that you can just pick from a bush.  This is not like fussing over lettuces and cabbages.  You just stick a few feet of stalk into the ground and it will take root and produce.  Well, in Samoa and Fiji it will.  Here in Hawaii, where it is not so humid and rainy, it may take a little more care getting the cuttings going.  Usually I start the cuttings off in a gallon pot of potting mix and then transplant it out once it is well rooted.

Bele is a food plant that is grown throughout Melanesia and also somewhat in Polynesian gardens  I mostly know Tongans and Fijians in Hawaii to eat it the most.  In Samoa it was not greatly used until a decade or so ago when there was a terrible virus that hit the taro leaves and suddenly Lau Pele became the substitute green leaf.  Maybe you watched that season of "Survivor" TV show that was filmed in Vanuatu and the winner team of the week was shown by the locals how to use the Bele leaves that were growing all around their camp.  They had been starving while all this food was right there.

The most commonly used Bele

Bele is usually referred to as the Edible Hibiscus but it does not look like that Chinese hibiscus bush in your garden.  To me, Bele always reminds me of its cousin, the Okra bush.  With Bele, however, the emphasis is on the leaves instead of the seed pods.  The flowers look very similar, a yellow hibiscus type flower with a dark center that only lasts one day.  There is a common variety of Bele grown here in Hawaii that has large soft leaves and this turned out to be the common one in Fiji too.  I know that there are at least several varieties of  leaf shape and I decided that while I was traveling in Fiji last month for a few weeks that I would try and track down what varieties of Bele they had there.  I expected to find it all over that place in Fiji, so I must admit that I was surprised to find out that I really needed to go hunting down back alleys and farm roads to find it.

The blotchy red stem Bele.  Note the red dot in the middle of the leaf.


The large soft leaf variety that is the popular Bele in Fiji is used mainly in soups because it cooks up easily with fish or mutton etc.  There was another variety of Bele which had blotchy red stems which, I was told by a couple of people, needed to be cooked with coconut milk to make it more palatable  There were also a couple of other shape leaf types that I  found.  I met one Pele enthusiast in the historic town of Levuka who had four types in the garden by her house and she was kind enough to let me pick a leaf from each bush and take a photo of them together for a comparison picture.  I never saw any other varieties in Fiji beyond these four types.


Four different varieties of Bele in a garden in Levuka.


Bele plants can grow to several feet in height and are usually grown from cuttings of about two feet long and about the thickness of a finger. It can be propagated by seed but the seeds may need to be nicked and soaked in water to encourage them to sprout.  Bele prefers rich soil and regular watering but does not like "wet feet".  It seemed that every time we had big rains and my garden got flooded out, my Bele would die.  The plant needs to be replaced every few years as it will get old and straggly so you need to get some new cuttings going every so often for replacement.  I used to have a fabulously beautiful red stem Bele in my garden and I am still mad at myself for not getting a new cutting going before the bush suddenly died after a rain storm flood.  It was a variety that I have not seen anywhere to get a replacement.  The plant will take full sun but it does seem to do better with a bit of afternoon shade. 


Bele plants in a garden that were feeling the dry weather.


Bele does not have too many disease problems but the big African snails will glide up those tall stems and gobble up the leaves if you do not keep a watch out.  The Asian beetle likes to chomp lacy holes in the leaves too but it is easy to pull off the old leaves to encourage new healthy growth.

A leaf eaten by the Asian beetle


One crop of Bele I saw in the Suva market in Fiji was just so impressive.  Such lush and beautiful leaves.  I am sure that they must have really pushed the use of water and fertilizer to get them so good looking.  Maybe even grown with some shade covering.  I was told that the Bele is quickly bought up at the markets by the local restaurants.

Lush Bele leaves for sale in Suva Market


At home, I use Bele leaves in a stir fry or a soup.  My favorite way to use them is to add the cut up leaves to a spaghetti sauce which seems to really go well together. Some people do not like the slimy feel of the cut leaves but you do not notice it when cooked.  It has that same mucilage that Okra has.   The local Tongans will often make a chicken soup with the the Bele leaves and coconut milk which is yummy.  Bele is really high up there in nutrition with very high amounts of Vitamin A and also Iron and lots of other minerals.  It is even comparatively high in protein for a plant and is definitely one of those plants that can help to feed the starving in countries with food problems.

I enjoyed my treasure hunt for Bele while in Fiji although I was surprised that I did not find more varieties than I did.  Watch this spot because if I find other varieties to take pictures of I will post them here.  Maybe I will find others in Samoa and I still have to get a picture of the lovely red stem variety I used to have in my garden.  I have also heard of a dark black leaf variety although have never seen it.  Maybe some of you readers have other varieties in your garden.

aloha

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Ong Choy (Ipomoea aquatica)


Ong Choy is a green leafy vegetable that I was introduced to at our local Chinese restaurant.  They serve Ong Choy with oyster sauce as one of their dishes.  Some time later I got a plant of Ong Choy but I forget how that came about.  I know that I did not understand how water loving the plant was until I saw it covering an old shrimp pond at a local farm.  From then on I made sure that my container grown Ong Choy was sitting in a deep saucer filled with water and I make sure to water it often.  Even then, I notice the plant is a lot happier in the rainy season that in the dry summer.



Ong Choy is a member of the sweet potato family, which becomes obvious when you see its flower.  It is a tropical and semiaquatic.  It grows in moist soils as well as water.  Its hollow stems allow it to spread out on top of water. The leaves and shoots are a popular vegetable through out the tropical world.  Apparently it is extremely popular in Taiwan.  There is some variation in the shape of the leaves; from arrow head shape to lanceolate.  Stems can grow 2-3 meters in length.  There is rooting at the the nodes which makes it easy to grow new plants from cuttings.  It can also be grown from seed.



Ong Choy is a vegetable that does not store well.  You really need to pick it on the day you are going to eat it.  A good reason to have some of this growing in your kitchen garden.  I have just one four gallon size container of it but it is a quick vegetable to grab for a stir fry or to add some nutrition to my packaged, instant noodle soup. My container plant has kept going for several years at this point.  I just cut the leaves and tips off to eat and occasionally cut the old stems back  and give a bit of fertilizer for new growth.  Ong Choy has a history of providing survival food for people in the tropics during war time when other food was scarce  It is also high in vitamins and minerals.  Definitely a good plant to have around and an easy one to care for.

Aloha

Monday, March 16, 2015

Callisia fragrans


I have a small garden full of Callisia out in the back yard beside an old coconut stump.  At least twelve years ago I brought a clean cutting back from Samoa and planted it in a shady area where it grew and multiplied like crazy.  After that I decided that it needed to be in the sun, wind and sand of the back yard where it would not grow so robustly.  Still, even there, I have to trim it back every few years but it is worth having the Callisia around to use as greenery in flower arrangements plus it really is a nice lush ground cover.



I first saw this plant in Apia, Samoa where it was growing in a public area of town.  When I researched it on the internet, it seems quite popular in Florida and the rest of the South East area of the US.  However, the only place I really have noticed it growing in Hawaii since is at the Waimea Valley Park here on Oahu.  There it is used as a great ground cover in rocky semi-shade areas.  The plant is thought to be native to Mexico.  It is a little puzzling to find that Callisia fragrans has become a popular medicinal plant in Russia of all places.  There are various medical claims out there on the internet that you can look up if you are interested.  The most common seems to be chewing the leaves to cure a headache.



Callisia is sometimes called Basket Plant as it was once very popular as a hanging plant.  It is quick to put out runners with a new baby plant growing at the tip.  This makes for easy propagation as you just snap off those baby plants and pot them up. They will root quickly and can be used as houseplants.   Callisia likes partial shade to full sun for good growth.  If the plant spreads too much and looks a little untidy, it is easy to pull off the extra unwanted plants and pull out the older big plants to let the young smaller ones to grow.  At the end of winter or early spring, tall, slender green spikes will appear from the center of the plant and will grow quickly up to three feet or so with tight clusters of small flower buds growing out at the top.  Callisia is a little strange in its flowering routine as one day all the plants will just be in full flush of beautiful small white flowers that just last one day and then it may be another week before there is another flush of flowers again and so on.   It does seem to me that the flowers burst forth the day after a heavy rain but that may just be coincidence.  I have not seen any seeding from the flowers.

Aloha

Thursday, February 12, 2015

Asparagus Fern (Asparagus aethiopicus)



It is useful to have an old potted asparagus fern around in the garden.  They make a nice full display as well as being a source for long dangling cuttings of greenery to insert in floral arrangements.  This plant,a native of South Africa, is not in the fern family, despite its name, but is a relative of the edible asparagus.  It has a couple of cousins that are also common in warm climate gardens........the Fox Tail Fern and the Climbing Asparagus Fern that I associate with old time bridal bouquets and boutonnieres. 


The Asparagus Fern is a natural for hanging pots but also is used as a ground cover.  Personally, I would not use it for a ground cover as it can get a bit messy looking with age.   I see on the internet that there is a problem with it getting invasive in Florida.  Another reason for not planting it out in the ground.  Birds could spread the seeds I guess but I have never noticed the fruit eating birds taking any interest in it.  I like to grow Asparagus Ferns in a large pot so that I have more control over it plus I can move it around for special garden events if wanted.  I rarely notice any bug or disease problem with it.  If it does get a problem it usually means it is getting too much water and not enough sun.  They do not like wet feet.  If I use the plant indoors for a special event, it is only for a day or two at most.  Longer than that and the plant will be dropping yellow needles all over the place.

Asparagus Fern can be propagated by division but I much prefer to grow them from seed so that I get a pretty, fluffy and upright plant to start off that will stay attractive for a long time.  As the plant grows older, it produces hundreds of white grape looking tuberous roots.  It is one of the mysteries of potting plants. Where does all the potting media disappear to?  You can plant a young Asparagus Fern in an azalea pot full of potting mix and in a few years the pot is just jam packed with the "white grape" tubers and no potting mix to be seen.  It will not stop there.  The plant keeps on producing its little tubers so that the plant root ball is lifted up right out of the pot and can grow several inches above the pot rim if left to do so ending up looking plain ugly.  You can see this tuber growth in older plants grown out in the landscape too and it does not look pretty.  This is when growing the Asparagus Fern in a pot helps for easy plant management.  It is time to be the boss and cut the plant down to size.

First, you give the overgrown Asparagus Fern a haircut.  This is done by cutting it totally bald.  You do not want any bits left sticking up and looking unattractive in the next new growth. Next, you remove the root ball from the pot and cut all those tubers off, keeping a small "cake" of roots, 2-3 inches deep and about  4-6 inches across.  A good carving knife or machete is the best tool for this job.  It is rather like cutting bread.  Repot the remaining "cake" of roots in fresh potting mix, fertilize and water well and you are done.  In a few weeks the new fronds will be coming out and in a few months you would never know that the plant had undergone such intensive surgery.  If a plant is not outgrowing its pot but looking very sad and straggly, I do just the haircut and fertilize part to get it looking good again.  Asparagus Fern loves getting fertilized and really responds to it with  lots of new growth.

The old-timer, before it meets the knife.
The same plant, after the haircut.
The root ball full of "white grape" tubers
The roots after surgery with the resulting "cake" on the left.
The root "cake" repotted.
New growth two weeks later.


To grow new plants, gather the little round red fruit and plant them in some potting mix.  You can rub the red fruit part off  the black seed inside or not worry about it.  I might also soak the seeds in water for a few hours before planting but either way, the seeds sprout quickly and easily.  After they have put up a few tiny fronds I transplant them into a 4 inch pot.  In a few months, when the small plant is full and bushy, I will transfer them to something bigger.  They always look nice in an azalea pot but I will use a big 4 gallon pot for the old timer that I want to keep for long dangling greenery.






Aloha

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Clean up time


I have been busy cleaning up my potting/nursery area of the garden this past few weeks.  I got pushed into it because we had the old asphalt roofing tiles removed from our house and new ones put on.  The result was black confetti all over the potting area and among the plants.  It was good incentive for me to get stuck into cleaning up the place and do some reorganizing.


At the same time I had been complaining to myself about how I hated getting down on my old knees to weed the aggressive St. Augustine grass out from under the potted plants.  I do not know why I did not not think of laying down old carpet as a weed barrier before.  I put a call out  for old carpet on the local free stuff Facebook page and it really has done the job well.  Plus there were some old asphalt roofing tiles under the house that I laid down under the plants as well.  I am thrilled with the result of both jobs and now I can put my energy back into potting again.  Anyways, while everything is looking ship shape  I have taken a few photos of the nursery and potting area for you to see.  I am afraid that on the average day it does not look so tidy.

The wonderful old wood bench that I use for potting was a free find..  The big red container holds my potting media....composted wood chips and recycled potting mix.  The black crates on the bench I use for recycling bottles.   All pots/containers have been recycled.  I garden cheap!
.

The nursery pot plants all started out on the ground but over time I found free junk to use to keep them up higher.  All the plastic crates and fish trays you see float in on the tide down at the beach.  I am happy to re purpose them.  Most of the plants get some wind protection from the house but the tough succulents and aloes etc. get stuck at the far end where they get the ocean winds coming through the back yard.

Yay! ....not more grass weeds under the pots.



I enjoy the challenge of propagating plants but I am afraid my plants get neglected when I go off traveling for a few months.  Between that and the salt winds we get as well as our sandy soil, you know why my favorite plants are tough plants.

Aloha